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Accelerate Time to First Oil with ILX Featured Image

Accelerate Time to First Oil with ILX

SLB joins this SPE Tech Talk to discuss the intelligent infrastructure-led exploration (ILX) workflow that combines geology, petrophysics, and dynamic reservoir evaluation. With accelerated processing, interpretation, and contextualization, this connected and intelligent workflow enables operators to derisk near-field reservoir evaluation within relevant operational time. Hear from two experts as they showcase real-world examples and share why ILX, or near-field exploration, is important today. 

Wellbore Seismic Featured Image

Wellbore Seismic

Evaluate the applicability of wellbore seismic technology to a particular well. Determine the need for check shot survey, synthetic seismogram, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and cross-well tomography. Use seismic sections, petrophysics and geological information to determine the wellbore seismic program. Identify the applicability of a wellbore seismic program for the exploration objective and acquisition configurations for different wellbore seismic techniques. Describe the acquisition and QC of the check shot survey / VSP. Describe the generation and QC of a synthetic seismogram from well logs and check shot data.

Seismic Interpretation of Shales Featured Image

Seismic Interpretation of Shales

This topic outlines the seven common types of unconventionals. It identifies the twelve desired characteristics of productive shale gas formations and outlines the impact of unconventional drilling on shale gas resources. The process of hydraulic fracture stimulation is described. The potential for seismic to help in the search for shale reservoirs is explained. Important mechanical rock properties for reservoir engineers that help with reservoir characterization are listed. The three seismic attributes that are useful for identifying optimal drilling locations are identified, and how these attributes are derived from the direct seismic is explained. It defines the three common current inversion methods. Two important factors that affect unconventional rock velocity are described. It outlines two important factors of velocities and explains how this determines the placement of wellbores. The coherence attribute and the features it helps to identify are explained. The main objectives of a microseismic survey are discussed. It lists the reasons it is important to identify faults early in the hydrofracking operation. Four key reasons microseismic is used to monitor well stimulation activities are explained.

Seismic Data Processing Featured Image

Seismic Data Processing

Design the seismic processing sequence by selecting the appropriate processing methods. Perform the data processing and quality control, and work with the interpreter to make sure that the outcome truly reflects the geological characteristics of the area. Describe the basic seismic processing sequence from pre-processing and deconvolution through stacking and velocity analysis, to migration and post-processes. Understand the application of different types of deconvolution, velocity analyses and migration techniques. Review processing steps in the context of the objectives of the seismic interpretation.

Seismic Attributes and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI) Featured Image

Seismic Attributes and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI)

Evaluate seismic attribute sections to enhance conventional seismic interpretation. Identify the seismic effects of a 'bright spot' anomaly and their physical cause. Describe the Amplitude Vs. Offset (AVO) effect and the physics that govern the response. List the attributes of the Hilbert Transform and their mathematical formulation. List possible effects to seismic amplitude response on 'Bright Spot' prospect. Describe AVO response and its causes. Explain the limitations of AVO response. Review Hilbert transform attributes. Describe work flow for evaluating attribute effectiveness.

Rock Properties and Mechanics Featured Image

Rock Properties and Mechanics

Identify rock mechanical properties from core, cuttings and electrical logs. Use analysis to address issues related to fractures, subsurface pressures, subsidence and compaction. Illustrate an understanding of rock properties that effect seismic response. Upon completing this course, the learner will be able to: define basic rock mechanical properties, describe how they are measured, understand the differences between laboratory measurements and in-situ properties, predict formation subsurface pressure environment and principal stress directions, and define properties that effect seismic response and how these properties relate to AVO effect.

Hydrocarbon Indicators Featured Image

Hydrocarbon Indicators

This topic outlines developments in seismic technology as they relate to direct hydrocarbon indicators. It lists the questions an interpreter should address to validate observed hydrocarbon indicators, and explains how to identify the relationship between lithology, a propagating wavelet and the seismic response. How color displays enhance our ability to visually discern data is described. The most important parameters used in employing seismic data as HCIs and why these are important are outlined. The use of frequencies in association with interpretive parameters and HCIs are listed. Major concerns with the use of frequency in subsurface HCI interpretation are identified. It lists the typical considerations that go into seismic velocity analysis. The topic explains the velocity crossover as a function of depth and geologic age for gas- and water-filled sand/shale sequences. Some of the positive and negative outcomes of AVO are outlined. Why a bed that is thinning or pinching will have the clearest seismic expression when tuning thickness is reached is explained. The primary purpose of seismic inverse modeling is described. Four ways that fractured reservoirs can be characterized with data from shear wave investigations are outlined.

3D and 4D Seismic Modeling, Design and Acquisition Featured Image

3D and 4D Seismic Modeling, Design and Acquisition

This course explains how the final 3D processed traces fit to an interpretation grid. It lists three seismic displays that are unique to 3D data. The primary differences in acquisition techniques between 2D and 3D projects are discussed. The three significant advantages of 3D seismic over 2D seismic are identified. It details how investing in a 3D survey helps reduce risks associated with drilling a dry hole. How the Fresnel Zone and frequency content are related when designing a 3D survey are discussed. The key considerations of 3D target analysis in pre-acquisition modeling are identified. It lists the four main benefits of wide azimuth surveys. The four criteria that a successful 4D program should meet are described. The three primary components of the 4D program design process are detailed. It describes the Global Positioning System and explains how it is used in seismic surveys. Six common land and marine seismic acquisition equipment configuration techniques are described. The vessels and equipment used in transition zone seismic acquisition are explained. The course discusses how different quality control techniques are used to improve seismic data.

Microseismic Studies of Reservoirs Featured Image

Microseismic Studies of Reservoirs

This course introduces the basics of using microseismic surveys to study hydrocarbon reservoirs. A microseismic survey is a 3D technology used to monitor subsurface processes by analyzing microearthquakes. Microearthquakes occur when production, injection or hydraulic fracturing cause changes in the pore pressure of a hydrocarbon reservoir that trigger slippage on bedding planes or fractures. The course begins with basic topics required to understand microseismic events and then discusses applications of microseismic surveys. Among the applications are monitoring fracture stimulation operations and relating production to microseismic data. The course includes examples, exercises and offers a list of digital papers for those interested in more information about a particular topic.

Seismic Stratigraphic Modeling Featured Image

Seismic Stratigraphic Modeling

This topic details the four basic rules to follow when acquiring seismic data for stratigraphic purposes and the four different processes for maximizing resolution in stratigraphic processing. It outlines two methods for extracting stratigraphic information from seismic data, describes lateral and vertical resolution and explains how these variables are used to interpret stratigraphic traps on seismic sections. The course lists three common sources used for acquiring seismic data and how their wavelets differ. Two variations in seismic amplitude responses due to changes in the type of pore fluid are defined. How the pore fluid type affects the seismic parameters of reflectivity, acoustic impedance and reflection coefficients are identified. The relationship between velocity and depth in terms of history and porosity is explained. The stratigraphic modeling categories are listed. The differences between forward and inverse modeling are outlined. The difference between one-dimensional and multi-dimensional modeling is described. How to generate a synthetic seismogram is discussed. The differences between an acoustic impedance log and a sonic log are identified. The inversion modeling process is described. The effects of attenuation and geometric spreading on inversion data is explained. Limitations with the AVO method are identified. The theory on which the AVO method is based is outlined.

Basic Seismic Processing Featured Image

Basic Seismic Processing

This course outlines the three major steps in seismic processing flows, defines seismic noise and lists the two types of noise that processing tries to suppress. The advantage of common-midpoint multiplicity is explained, ground roll is identified on a seismic section and the kinds of filtering used to remove ground roll are demonstrated. The course describes how array simulation improves the lateral continuity of seismic sections. The mathematical operation of demultiplexing is described, the reasons for noisy traces are identified and the ways to correct them are covered. It explains reasons for seismic amplitude decay and defines the common ways to correct it. The various forms of datum corrections are outlined and why these methods are employed is explained. The course defines the process of deconvolution and what the process improves. The advantages of the multifold acquisition technique are outlined. How normal moveout increases reflection time is explained and the normal moveout correction process is described. CMP stacking, stacking velocity and the process of migration are defined. How reflections are moved with migration is described. It explains the two main goals of seismic post-processes and the benefits of the F-X deconvolution filter. The historical, primary trace display modes and reasons for choosing plotting scales are outlined.

Dipmeter Surveys Featured Image

Dipmeter Surveys

Dipmeter data is an important component of the database used in integrated subsurface interpretations. Computed dipmeter data provides geoscientists with critical geological insight, especially when combined with other well and seismic data, to help evaluate the subsurface environment. This topic, Dipmeter Surveys, discusses dipmeter logging tools, data acquisition, data processing, display and interpretation of computed dipmeter data, as well as applications for unconventional resource reservoirs. Duration: 7 hours Content: Dipmeter Overview Dipmeter Logging Tools Raw Dipmeter Data Processing Display of Formation Dip and Image Data Dipmeter Interpretation of the Geological Structure Dipmeter Interpretation in Various Depositional Environments Dipmeter Applications for Unconventional Resource Reservoirs

3-D Seismic Interpretation Featured Image

3-D Seismic Interpretation

Interpret a 3-D seismic survey using seismic sections and time slices to interpret horizons and faults. Display an understanding of the use of time slices, horizon slices and other 3-D techniques play in 3-D interpretation. Identify common horizon auto-picker parameters and their effects. Enumerate criteria for picking faults on time slices. Describe various 3-D survey display options. Describe creation and uses of horizon slices. List parameters for amplitude extraction of a 3-D horizon.

Seismic Survey Design Featured Image

Seismic Survey Design

Describe environmental factors that require modification to normal marine/non-marine seismic data acquisition. Include access, water depth, surface terrain, noise and obstructions. Indicate appropriate source, receiver or geometries considerations for each case. List non-conventional seismic survey types and their application. List non-conventional source and receiver types and their application. List source and receiver limitations for a transition zone seismic survey. Describe possible shooting solutions for seismic acquisition in an existing field with obstructions. Describe exploration reasons for shear wave acquisition.