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Issues in Reservoir Management Featured Image

Issues in Reservoir Management

Evaluation of Naturally Fractured ReservoirsDiscusses the origin and classification of natural fractures, and outlines methods for detecting and characterizing them. Discusses how the properties of fractured formations affect reservoir engineering considerations. Outlines general approaches to modeling fractured reservoirs, illustrating these approaches with several case studies. Reservoir Management of Mature FieldsIntroduces the concept of synergism in reservoir management, stressing an interdisciplinary approach as key to maximizing a field's potential. Outlines data requirements and methodology for evaluating a mature reservoir. Discusses applied reservoir management from the standpoint of increasing reserves and monitoring performance, with special emphasis on waterflooding and enhanced oil recovery projects.

Hydrocarbon Indicators Featured Image

Hydrocarbon Indicators

This topic outlines developments in seismic technology as they relate to direct hydrocarbon indicators. It lists the questions an interpreter should address to validate observed hydrocarbon indicators, and explains how to identify the relationship between lithology, a propagating wavelet and the seismic response. How color displays enhance our ability to visually discern data is described. The most important parameters used in employing seismic data as HCIs and why these are important are outlined. The use of frequencies in association with interpretive parameters and HCIs are listed. Major concerns with the use of frequency in subsurface HCI interpretation are identified. It lists the typical considerations that go into seismic velocity analysis. The topic explains the velocity crossover as a function of depth and geologic age for gas- and water-filled sand/shale sequences. Some of the positive and negative outcomes of AVO are outlined. Why a bed that is thinning or pinching will have the clearest seismic expression when tuning thickness is reached is explained. The primary purpose of seismic inverse modeling is described. Four ways that fractured reservoirs can be characterized with data from shear wave investigations are outlined.

3D and 4D Seismic Modeling, Design and Acquisition Featured Image

3D and 4D Seismic Modeling, Design and Acquisition

This course explains how the final 3D processed traces fit to an interpretation grid. It lists three seismic displays that are unique to 3D data. The primary differences in acquisition techniques between 2D and 3D projects are discussed. The three significant advantages of 3D seismic over 2D seismic are identified. It details how investing in a 3D survey helps reduce risks associated with drilling a dry hole. How the Fresnel Zone and frequency content are related when designing a 3D survey are discussed. The key considerations of 3D target analysis in pre-acquisition modeling are identified. It lists the four main benefits of wide azimuth surveys. The four criteria that a successful 4D program should meet are described. The three primary components of the 4D program design process are detailed. It describes the Global Positioning System and explains how it is used in seismic surveys. Six common land and marine seismic acquisition equipment configuration techniques are described. The vessels and equipment used in transition zone seismic acquisition are explained. The course discusses how different quality control techniques are used to improve seismic data.

Reserves Definitions, Reporting, and Mapping Featured Image

Reserves Definitions, Reporting, and Mapping

Upon completing this Learning Module assignment, the participant should be able to access the applications used to generate MEM maps in official format and generate a map using the applications. the learner will also be able to elaborate and update from the maps generated during the modeling of the reservoir, the maps required by the Ministry of Energy and Mines in official format, for the administration and control of the reserves.

Seismic Stratigraphic Modeling Featured Image

Seismic Stratigraphic Modeling

This topic details the four basic rules to follow when acquiring seismic data for stratigraphic purposes and the four different processes for maximizing resolution in stratigraphic processing. It outlines two methods for extracting stratigraphic information from seismic data, describes lateral and vertical resolution and explains how these variables are used to interpret stratigraphic traps on seismic sections. The course lists three common sources used for acquiring seismic data and how their wavelets differ. Two variations in seismic amplitude responses due to changes in the type of pore fluid are defined. How the pore fluid type affects the seismic parameters of reflectivity, acoustic impedance and reflection coefficients are identified. The relationship between velocity and depth in terms of history and porosity is explained. The stratigraphic modeling categories are listed. The differences between forward and inverse modeling are outlined. The difference between one-dimensional and multi-dimensional modeling is described. How to generate a synthetic seismogram is discussed. The differences between an acoustic impedance log and a sonic log are identified. The inversion modeling process is described. The effects of attenuation and geometric spreading on inversion data is explained. Limitations with the AVO method are identified. The theory on which the AVO method is based is outlined.

Applications of Petroleum Geochemistry Featured Image

Applications of Petroleum Geochemistry

Demonstrates uses and limitations of geochemical techniques and their importance in exploration and production. Presents appropriate sample selection and preparation, as well as analytical techniques used in laboratories. Reviews and integrates basic source rock and crude oil evaluation programs into more advanced basin study and modeling programs.

Reservoir Model Updating Featured Image

Reservoir Model Updating

Upon completion of this module, the participant should be able to incorporate new production data (selective & differential) into the reservoir model, along with new information from well/core analyses and refine the reservoir model based on differences between predicted and actual pressure and production data.

Flow Unit Determination Featured Image

Flow Unit Determination

Upon completing this Learning Module assignment, the participant should be able to establish the areal and vertical distribution of zones with similar behavior in agreement with the reservoir model and identify and delineate the rock volumes with sedimentological, petrophysical and reservoir properties that enable hydraulic communication.